In Africa, governance matters are increasingly recognized by governments, international donor agencies and the development assistance community as central to achieving national policy objectives and development outcomes, including economic growth, poverty reduction, and improved security.
Other issues include the linkage between human rights, poverty and environment especially as establishment, expansion, and upgrading of protected areas are increasing. Conservation approaches are changing to deal with parks, people and poverty issues. Legal and social issues such as methods by which national parks are established and the use of free, prior and informed consent of local communities are under increased scrutiny and require further exploration. Also land around protected areas is being fragmented into small landholdings and put into uses not compatible with wildlife. Many animals are losing vital dispersal areas and traditional migratory routes, and are increasingly confined to parks. Important wildlife populations reside exclusively outside the protected estate. Fragmentation has negative impacts on wildlife as well as on local communities which still practice their traditional forms of pastoralism and manage rangeland as common property.