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There are many externalities and emerging issues causing unintended or indirect adverse impacts on biodiversity in Africa. This includes human population growth, health issues and emerging infectious diseases, and disasters and conflict.

Disputes over valuable and scarce resources such as land, timber, water, and minerals can play a role in fueling and sustaining conflict. Tension over accountability, distribution and access to natural resources and biodiversity is an increasing threat especially in countries that are vulnerable to crisis, in crisis or emerging from crisis. There is a need to better understand the role of natural resource conflict in Africa and issues.