This paper, authored by consultant Meg Spearman and Radhika Dave of Conservation International, explores how various organizations and practitioners have approached the design and use of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) tools to record results and assess ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) projects and programs. The information presented here is based on a desk review of documentation on frameworks and approaches to EbA, discussions among members of the ABCG, and interviews with practitioners currently developing EbA projects and programs. The guidance documents and reports on emerging lessons for EbA that are included in this review have mostly only indirectly addressed the issue of M&E, in part because most of the tools and resources available are intended as planning tools for integrating climate change projections into existing or new projects, rather than M&E tools per se. The authors reviewed guidelines and reports from several institutions and organizations that are attempting to measure EbA effectiveness to: 1) identify criteria and indicators for effectiveness; 2) identify the challenges and opportunities posed by M&E of EbA; and 3) identify the optimal M&E tools or approaches that a practitioner might utilize to track and record results to periodically assess implementation effectiveness. Also provided is a list of the factors that a practitioner may need to consider in designing effective M&E for any EbA approach.