The Africa Biodiversity Collaborative Group (ABCG) engages in various approaches to address emerging and high-priority conservation issues affecting biodiversity in Africa, many of which are represented by the previous presentations in this symposium. Our work is guided in part by the Dar Vision for the Future of Biodiversity in Africa, which foresees that By 2025, environmental degradation and biodiversity loss in Africa have been significantly slowed, people and nature are adapting to climate change, and species and ecosystem services are providing a foundation for human welfare in a society committed to sustainable economic development and equitable sharing of natural resource benefits. The approaches shared in this symposium range from legal rights to scenario planning, sustainability frameworks and community leadership in land use planning. Tradeoffs are inherently a part of each approach. This final presentation will address the benefits and challenges of the above approaches and will preface a discussion on competing interests, development needs and preservation and protection of biodiversity.