Uganda Solar Lantern Jim Anderson

Clean Energy Technologies, Applications and Methodologies

Finding Solutions for communities, conservation and the climate

A large number of rural communities in Africa exhibit substantial vulnerability to recent changes in climate and weather patterns. Such communities, often with poorly diversified livelihood bases, generallyare highly dependent on renewable and biological resources, which themselves are subject to the vicissitudes of climatic variations.

Uganda Solar Lantern Jim Anderson
Solar salesman in Gulu, Uganda.

Photo: James H. Anderson /Flickr


The conservation community is recognizing the complex dynamic between meeting the needs of both the human and animal populations in areas of ecological importance. Addressing household energy needs can help reduce pressure on natural resources such as firewood and bring positive impacts for local residents. For example, the surveys showed that households could travel up to 50 km to the nearest town to purchase kerosene for lighting and spend over 5 hours looking for firewood for cooking. Encouraging the use of technologies such as solar lanterns and energy efficient stoves can help reduce the time spent on fuel collection as well as reducing household expenditure.

~Laura Clough, Technical Specialist, GVEP International.



ABCG’s climate change efforts focus on a variety of approaches using science-based decision-making tools and participatory techniques. These approaches include climate change adaptation; providing stakeholders with appropriate methodologies and best practices for conservation-development tradeoffs; grazing management and soil carbon; and the topic of this feature newsletter, Applying Clean Energy and Sustainable Eco-charcoal Technology. In the past year the Clean Energy working group’s sought to understand which strategies have worked in promoting the use and adoption of clean energy technologies so as to influence future programming, policy-making and development goals.


In 2012, ABCG members, including the Africa Wildlife Foundation and the Jane Goodall Institute, produced two reports and accompanying report briefs authored by GVEP International , targeted at a broad spectrum of audiences including policy makers, natural resource managers and households.


The report, a Review of Household Clean Energy Technology for Lighting, Charging and Cooking in East Africa-Kenya and Tanzania: A Learning Report, is aimed at informing policy development to enhance the adoption of appropriate technologies and production methods.

cookstove by Saksan
Improved cookstove. Photo Saksan /Flickr

An extensive appendix of advanced cookstoves, solar products and their suppliers both in Tanzania and Kenya are featured in the report. The report presents key findings of the authors’ comprehensive survey, rendering the report a particularly valuable resource inventory of the technology landscape in eastern Africa. For example, it is evident that there is a plethora of innovative and imaginative product solutions, but the survey points to significant barriers in the adoption of such technology including lack of capital on the consumer side and lack of collateral and credit on the business side.


A follow up report builds on the findings of the review of household clean energy technologies, and presents a toolkit to better identify and support appropriate and context sensitive technologies and approaches for implementing agencies. The report, subtitled Toolkit for Implementing Household Energy Projects in Conservation Areas, proves useful for the wider conservation community and household-level energy sector development as well. Rich with schematic diagrams and other visual illustrations, the report presents the reader with the benefits and drawbacks of a selection of cookstove and lighting technology options under various application contexts linked to biodiversity conservation and community development. These technologies include eco-charcoal (improved) stoves, biogas, wind and solar systems. Furthermore, consideration is paid to the economic feasibility of a particular technology. The toolkit offers a handy assessment and implementation methodology to get started, as well as operational, monitoring and evaluation considerations to support the implementer towards successful project completion.

Developing systems of renewable and ecologically sound energy production, distribution and consumption can mean the difference between catastrophic collapse or thriving livelihoods for many rural (and even urban) African communities as well as natural ecosystems that support such communities. A recent peer-reviewed study by Konrad Wessels of the CSIR-Meraka Institute in South Africa found evidence that rural communities face imminent danger of depleting their wood-based energy supply unless they make the switch to other sustainable sources to avert devastating ecological collapse. A link to the study can be found through Conservation Magazine’s article here.

Scaling up the use of appropriate clean and fuel efficient technology for energy in rural areas and the fast growing urban population in Africa is urgently needed if Africa’s landscapes are to survive and remain viable engines for economic development through the ecosystem services they offer.’ It is for this reason that the analysis facilitated by ABCG is timely, relevant, and welcome as the global community seeks to achieve the vision for universal access to clean and affordable energy by 2030.


~Jimmiel Mandima, Program Director of Policy, African Wildlife Foundation



Find an abbreviated version of the full reports here


Imam Kasozi, Uganda at NNP

“Many Heavens, One Earth, Our Continent”: African Faith Leaders Launch Conservation Commitments

Faiths guide and direct the way we think, behave, and live our lives. But the power of faith is not solely spiritual. Collectively, faith-related institutions own almost 8 percent of total habitable land surface and constitute the world’s third largest category of financial investors. Their determination to address climate change or to protect wildlife has enormous potential to influence the fate of natural spaces and species.  

With funding from USAID’s Biodiversity Analysis and Technical Support (BATS) program of the Bureau for Africa, the Africa Biodiversity Collaborative Group supports engagement with faith communities on conservation. Through this initiative, ABCG works with its members the Jane Goodall Institute and World Wildlife Fund-US, as well as the UK-based  Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC).

Imam Kasozi, Uganda at NNP
Immam Ibban Iddih Kasozi, Vice National Chairman of the Uganda Muslim Youth Assembly, enjoying God’s creation at Nairobi National Park (c) J.Morgan/ WWF

From 18-20 September 2012, ARC hosted the “Many Heavens, One Earth, Our Continent: African Faith Commitments for a Living Planet” conference during which faith groups from throughout sub-Saharan Africa launched their long-term plans for conservation. These plans are compiled in a volume of the same title. During the workshop, more than 100 participants gathered at the All Africa Conference of Churches Archbishop Desmond Tutu Ecumenical Centre for three days of celebrating the long-term conservation plans, as well as discussions of engaging faith communities, developing partnerships, sustainable agriculture, education, tree planting, the role of women, and illegal wildlife trade.

Celebration and storytelling were important components of the conference. Martin Palmer of ARC emphasized the importance of celebration in all faith traditions, and so the conference began with joyous recognition of the work and commitments of each faith group. Guest speakers included the President of the All Africa Conference of Churches, the Acting Ambassador of Norway, the UNEP Africa Region Permanent Secretary and school children from Muslim and Christian eco-schools in Nairobi. Tree seedlings were blessed with Muslim, Christian and Hindu prayers and were presented to Kenyan leaders at the conference.

Faith leaders celebrate their commitments to conservation (c) N. Bailey /ABCG

The plans focus on faith-based responses to the issues of agriculture practice, sustainable use of land and water and education on the environment in faith schools. They include:

Tree planting and agroforestry are important parts of many faith plans. For example, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania intends to set up 26 tree nurseries training over 200 women in tree nursery establishment, tree planting and agroforestry.

Many faiths have strong commitments to sustainable agriculture. One of these, the Abaja Ba Kristo (the Servants of Christ) agro-pastoral centre, run by a women’s religious congregation in Karongi Region, Rwanda, proposes expanding its farmer training in sustainable agriculture.

Water. sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects are also very important to many faith groups, as is environmental education from a faith perspective. ARC is working with the Kenyan Organization for Environmental Education and other faith groups to development an education for sustainable development toolkit for faith primary schools in Kenya that incorporates faith values, using eco-schools as a strategy for the curriculum of faith-based schools.

Islam, Christianity and African spirituality all have important ways of relating to the environment, and many faith groups have goals for education and community engagement. Mosques in Uganda are promoting Green Fridays – designated days for discussion and action on the environment. In addition, more than 10,000 Christian and Muslim congregations in Ghana will hold awareness creation workshops on environmental protection.

For more information on the faith commitments, click here:

Illegal Wildlife Trade
Hajjat prays
Christian, Muslim and Hindu faith leaders pray for protection of wildlife and park rangers at the site of the 1989 ivory burn at Nairobi National Park (c) J.Morgan/ WWF

With support from USAID through ABCG, WWF and ARC announced a first-ever partnership with faith leaders from across Africa to unite against the killing of endangered species caused by illegal wildlife trade. In an unprecedented move, 50 African religious representatives from different faiths and countries have come together to call for the end of illegal wildlife trade, which is annihilating the continent’s elephant and rhino populations.

WWF and ARC have worked with leaders from Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Jewish, Buddhist and traditional faiths to align around the wildlife crisis facing Africa. We have held several meetings including a wildlife safari in Nairobi National Park to discuss the role of religion in Africa to halt the trade. The leaders gave a moving tribute to all of the wildlife exterminated due to the trade. They also prayed for the wellbeing of local communities and for the many hundreds of rangers that have lost their lives protecting wildlife across Africa.

Please visit to learn more about our work. We are grateful to the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Biodiversity Analysis and Technical Support (BATS) program for their support of these efforts. USAID logo


Natalie Bailey
Africa Biodiversity Collaborative Group
Emmanuel Mtiti of JGI

2012 ABCG Land Use & Governance Thematic Meeting

: Land under PressureCompetition, Opportunities and Implications for Conservation

ABCG held a thematic meeting on Land Tenure and Biodiversity: Analyzing Biodiversity Conservation and Governance to Prevent Conflict and Crisis. Jimmiel Mandima, Program Director of Policy with the Africa Wildlife Foundation served as Chair and moderator on this open meeting that featured recent work in the field and a lively discussion with all participants.

Key themes of the meeting included:

  • Land is the thread that runs through numerous conservation challenges in Africa
  • Communities voice and involvement in matters related to land use is essential
  • A need for coordinated and integrated approaches that avoid stove-piping and sectoral silos
  • The role of policy AND implementation as cross-checks on one another

The following is a summary of the presentation points and proceedings.

Implementation of Land Policy for Improved Ecosystem Management and Land Tenure in Western Tanzania

Emmanuel Mtiti, Program Director, the Jane Goodall Institute-Tanzania; Emmanuel Mtiti of JGI
Matt Brown, Conservation Director, The Nature Conservancy Africa Region

The landscape of Western Tanzania is seriously threatened by incompatible development, unsustainable farming techniques, destructive and uncontrolled wildfires, and inadequate local capacity to establish and enforce more environmentally friendly land use policies and practices. Gradual encroachment has caused significant negative impact on sustainable development and habitat preservation in the region. Co-presented by Mtiti and Brown, the discussion focused on how the Jane Goodall Institute (JGI), The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and partners are working with authorities from the village to the national level in a land use planning process to address on-going threats.

Matt BrownAvailable opportunities exist within the country policy framework to improve management of critical ecosystems in Western Tanzania and reduce conflicts in the utilization of forests while improving the livelihoods of the local population. Through an intense participatory process, JGI and Frankfurt Zoological Society have completed 63 village land use plans and 37 village land forest reserves in the Greater Mahale Ecosystem. This contributes to the process of integrating local planning with regional and national natural resource planning and management. Brown shared that the recently completed 15 month survey for assessing critical chimpanzee habitat is being used by government officials to identify priority conservation sites and reach consensus regarding the conservation status for each of those sites within the Greater Mahale Ecosystem. This information is being used to define the most critical forest protection sites for existing chimpanzee populations and for connectivity within this broader ecosystem. The resulting knowledge is being discussed with district and higher government officials to consider the value of the resource inventory and implications for management, local livelihoods and conservation. A forest protection blue-print will be produced that will result in the creation of new protected areasvillage forest reserves and national forest reserves.

Mtiti emphasized that the most challenging issue for land tenure in Tanzania is in poor management, rather than a need to reform the constitution. It is important for villagers to develop village land use plans and to register clearly demarcated land, thereby avoid land grabs especially in densely populated areas. Having done this, villagers can pursue customary land use rights that are legally binding that could be honored as collateral for bank loans.

Securing Land and Community Benefits through Creative Conservation Tools and Models: Research and Practice in Zimbabwe, Kenya and South Africa

Kathleen Fitzgerald, AWFKathleen Fitzgerald, Director of Land Conservation, Africa Wildlife Foundation

The African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) has explored land tenure, environmental easements, carbon mitigation, co-management agreements and conservancy models in Zimbabwe, Kenya, and South Africa. Fitzgerald highlighted some of their key findings and featured the work AWF is conducting in Zimbabwe around developing conservancy models as part of achieving provisions of the countrys indigenization policy as well as economic, social and ecological sustainability.

The Zimbabwe government invited AWFs assistance with an initial review of the state of the nations conservation estate that includes three major designations:

  • Protected Areas
  • CAMPFIRE Areas
  • Conservancies

All three areas have experienced wildlife declines due to a number of factors including land use conversion, poaching, unplanned resettlement as part of the Land Reform Program, lack of capacity because of the financial situation and mismanagement. AWF is implementing a variety of strategies to address these threats, and was invited by the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority to help develop a proposed model for conservancies in Zimbabwe that meet the Indigenization and Economic Empowerment policy of 2007. AWFs proposal includes indigenization through the engagement of the communities that live in and around conservancies.

While conservancies vary throughout Africa, they offer a suite of universal benefits to land, natural resource management, community empowerment, tourism diversity, revenue generation and biodiversity conservation. The Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority requested AWF to use Save Valley Conservancy as a pilot site for AWF to develop a model that achieves economic, social and environmental sustainability. Fitzgerald discussed some of the best practices AWF has reviewed in Africa for conservancy management and development and shared some of the proposed model in Zimbabwe. She reviewed Zimbabwes Land Reform Policy and how this had and continues to have a direct impact on wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe.

Overlapping Land and Natural Resource Rights in Africa: A Comparative Analysis

Peter VeitPeter Veit, Interim Director of Institutions and Governance Program, World Resources Institute

Peter Veit discussed the authorities granted by government to natural resource licensees to enter onto and use privately-held land (including communal/customary land and private conservancies) for purposes of exercising their resource rights. He focused on petroleum and mineral concession holders in Ghana, Liberia, Kenya and Uganda. Some comparison was also made with the authorities granted to the holders of tree and forest rights.

Veits work with the World Resources Institute (WRI) has focused on the spectrum of restrictions on privately-held landfrom restrictions with minor impacts on land use and values to regulatory takings. Of note is the contrast with US land rights where land ownership comes with rights to many natural resources, while in the study countries, there are separate and distinct land and many natural resource property rights regimes. Veits research shows that mineral and petroleum laws provide resource licensees with considerable authorities to use private land for their operations.

The situation with trees and forests is more complex but in some countries the forestry laws better recognize land rights than mineral and petroleum laws. Still, commercial use usually requires government approval management plans and certain species have use restrictions or are fully protected.

There is ample room to increase options for landowners to lobby for stronger land rights such as requesting rent from licensees to use private land, mandating landholder consent for licensees to use natural resources, and allowing landowners to use land in conjunction with licensee, etc. Many contradictions exist between land and natural resource laws that need to be harmonized.

Empowering Communities: Recognizing Land Rights as a Path to Collaboration

Karol Boudreaux, USAIDKarol Boudreaux, Africa Land Tenure Specialist, U.S. Agency for International Development / Economic Growth, Education and Environment

Karol Boudreaux presented on emerging land tenure and land governance issues in Africa and focused on large-scale land acquisitions, private-sector investment and the opportunity presented by the adoption of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT) to address conflict related to competing land uses and how USAID is thinking about these issues and challenges.

The VGGT offers land and resource managers fundamental guidelines on land use planning and administration. Adoption of the VGGT provides an important window of opportunity to tackle issues including protecting customary rights, integrating gender concerns, recognizing secondary and tertiary rights (most typically to natural resources) and supporting responsible investing by private sector actors. Boudreaux highlighted how some community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) best practices can be applied to work with communities, farmers associations, etc. to build more collaborative contracting models that empower communities.

Governance is a systemic process that relates to the rule of law, political concerns and local power structures. Land tenure professionals would benefit from incorporating more comprehensive, integrated approaches to their practices so as to incorporate not only institutions allocating and enforcing laws, but also informal sector institutions, traditional leaders and customary practices.

Demand for land in Africa is high but tenure rights on the ground are often weak. Locals need assurances that their rights are realized and honored thus promoting a sense of ownership and resource stewardship. For example, empowering local communities to transfer rights between their own people and to engage directly with investors can be mutually beneficial and reduce some risks associated with land acquisitions.

Carl Bruch, Environmental Law Institute

Carl Bruch, ELIThe Environmental Law Institute (ELI) is working on a multi-year project examining how post-conflict peace-building can be catalyzed through natural resource management processes. As a joint exercise with other institutions, ELI has published Land and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding edited by Jon Unruh and Rhodri Williams and published by Earthscan. Peace building is difficult often because of conflicts over land and natural resources. In South Sudan, virtually none of the communities have come forward to validate their claims to community land after Khartoum enacted a law that invalidated 99 percent of the populations claims, reflecting a daunting task of integrating formal governance structures with local, informal customary systems.

Well functioning land management systems depend on good information systems. Cadastral systems thus need careful design to incorporate the vertical spectrum of rightsminerals and petroleum, grazing, trees, etc. into one system.

Closing Discussion:

Several key themes percolated during the discussion:

Land tenure professionals need to be more considerate of cross-sectoral land use issues, including climate change. USAID, for example, employs climate experts to address climate change implications on land use, and show concern on the level of informality prevalent with rural communities and other stakeholders.

The role of governance is crucial as a regulatory mechanism, but must also involve an interactive, multi-ministerial framework for effective policy-making and functioning regulation using a comprehensive cadastral database.

A significant challenge for land tenure practitioners is engaging communities, often small and marginalized, in the process of securing their land rights and other resource privileges with trust and confidence in the governance system. Some examples were cited where community awareness and trust in a (generally) centralized government agency is poor. These include South Sudan and southern Kenya, where communal rangeland in Kajiado County is being subdivided amid short-term gain and community uncertainty.

The land use and governance theme may gain from efforts to further formalize land issues and build capacity to tackle conservation challenges by engaging academic institutions. Whereas conservation and developments organizations indeed have field specialists and technical expertise, the academic sector offers opportunities to pool various resources including robust evidence-based socio-economic and ecological knowledge. The UKs Department of Land Economy at the University of Cambridge was cited as an example of its role in helping create several land use statutes in Africa. Other partnerships include USAID and The Nelson Institutes Land Tenure Center at the University of Madison-Wisconsin.

Much of the work done by ABCG is closely tied to the land, a fact that resonates with our development counterparts. Many of the stakeholders including rural communities approach land use broadly and systemically. Land use thus serves as an ever present reminder of the need to synergize strengths through partnerships, and break barriers of institutional silos and information stove piping that affect the mission of work towards biodiversity conservation and sustained livelihood development.

Rainforest Axel Rouvin

High Conservation Values Forest Assessment

Recognizing the true value of critical landscapes against industrial development

Africa’s population is growing at a rate of 2.3 percent annually, compared to 1.1 percent globally. At the same time, the continent is losing about 10 million acres of forest every year to commercial logging and land conversion for roads, agriculture, settlement, and various other developments.

Rainforest Axel Rouvin
Rainforest in Gabon. Photo: Axel Rouvin /Flickr

… [I]ncreasingly, we are seeing the same scenario played out in Africa. A cheap, profitable crop like palm oil is difficult for many to turn down, even if it means wiping out chimpanzee or gorilla habitat in the process. Surely Dr. Oz’s audience would like to make informed consumer choices with so much in the balance.

A recent reaction by GRASP ambassadors Dr. Richard Wrangham with Dr. Jane Goodall speaking out on consumers’ impact of their choices on the survival of great apes.

~See: Great Apes Survival Partnership, January 2013 


Africa’s forests and woodlands are among the world’s richest source of biodiversity resources and livelihoods for a majority of local people. Africa’s forests have a crucial role to play at the regional and global level, in large part due to ecosystem services including climate regulation, carbon sequestration, repositories for biodiversity, primary and secondary forest products, and water catchment.


In recent years, efforts to localize and internalize the true social, environmental and economic value of intact ecosystems into development plans have come to the fore as irreplaceable landscapes are destroyed at an alarming rate, often in less developed nations. One such effort uses the High Conservation Value (HCV) forest assessments principle developed by the Forest Stewardship Council.


ABCG recognized the massive threat posed by the ever increasing interest in and demand for Africa’s natural resources through logging, mining, palm oil, wildlife poaching and other industries. ABCG partners involved with the HCV task include Conservation International, Wildlife Conservation Society and World Wildlife Fund. Protecting biological resources does not come easy in a continent rife with scarce infrastructure, poor capacity and incomplete data. The importance of these significant barriers to implementing ecologically balanced development measures led to ABCG’s HCV Forest Assessment task conducted for the Congo Basin in two phases:
Rio Ivindo Carlos Reis
Rio Ivindo. Photo Carlos Reis /Flickr
  • Develop a toolkit for setting HCV thresholds of significance for the coastal forest area of Gabon. This involved analyzing ecological and environmental service data available for the coastal forest biome of Gabon; and   
  • Investigate the possibilities of scaling up this approach for a methodology applicable to a national or regional scale, particularly in central Africa, identifying biodiversity data gaps and conducting regional HCV evaluations.

The effort resulted in two detailed reports produced by Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society experts. The first, authored by Tim Rayden, Technical Advisor for Forestry at the Wildlife Conservation Society, aims at establishing a model approach to setting limits and thresholds to criteria for HCV attributes. Titled Defining HCV Thresholds in Gabon: Year #1 report, it seeks to offer a utility to the process of land use planning by developing parameters that are appropriate for the national context. Key steps in the process include five thematic areas to support Gabon’s national land use planning process:

  1. Review existing approaches to threshold setting for conservation planning in data-poor contexts and their potential applicability to a stakeholder-led HCV decision making process
  2. Development of methods for the identification of forest types and land units, to facilitate the planning process
  3. Identification and modeling of endemic plant hotspots
  4. Refining the work done so far on population mapping of great apes and elephants
  5. Using a biotic index of fresh water systems to identify important river catchments 

The second report, titled A Global Review of National Guidance for High Conservation Value, was authored by Rachel Neugarten and Conrad Savy of Conservation International. The report reviews an array of toolkits and guidance literature to tease out common themes or areas of consistency that represent best practices with the aim of developing national guidelines.

Rachel Neugarten explains further: 

We undertook this review out of concerns about inconsistencies in the ways different countries are defining and applying the concept of High Conservation Value in forestry, agricultural, and biofuels landscapes. We found that indeed there are sharp differences in the guidance from different countries, including different definitions of threatened species, protected areas, and large intact landscapes. But we see reason to be hopeful that existing guidance can be linked to international standards, such as the , and make use of existing tools, such as the Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool (IBAT) which can make it easier for practitioners to implement the HCV framework and to increase the consistency in the way this standard is applied across countries.

This report highlights several noteworthy findings: The authors recognize that developing guidelines is highly contextual, and thus calls for pragmatic and flexible approaches. They also find there is need for HCV assessment in non-forest landscapes including grasslands and marine ecosystems.  


Overall, the authors find a striking lack of quantitatively-based criteria in many toolkits, likely due to the cost of acquiring such data, adding to the challenge of setting thresholds. This is the core challenge that the HCV partners endeavor to resolve through ongoing efforts in a second phase of the Defining HCV Thresholds in Gabon work. WCS and partners will continue publishing maps, develop data into tools and decision support applications for conservation planning, and conduct ground testing to ultimately provide a case study on determining HCV areas in a particular landscape.


The concern about deforestation and climate change is driving increasing public scrutiny of land use decisions. Governments, private sector and NGOs have a common interest in identifying the areas important to conserve. Participatory approaches such as the identification of HCV areas can have a major influence. Our project aims to provide a scientifically robust and transparent basis for why a given area of forest is considered HCV. The aim is to test different thresholds, and to show these on maps, so that stakeholders can see the impacts of their decisions about what is important.


~Tim Rayden, Technical Advisor, Forestry and Climate Change, WCS Congo


Find an executive summary of the A Global Review of National Guidance for High Conservation Value report by CI here.

Peter Veit of WRI, Johnny Wilson of TNC and Emmanuel Sulle of University of Maryland talk after the meeting

2011 ABCG Land Use & Governance Thematic Meeting

An ABCG meeting on this issue was hosted by The Nature Conservancy (Arlington, VA) and African Wildlife Foundation (Nairobi, Kenya) on 5 February 2011. The two locations were linked by video conference. Co-Moderators of the meeting were Helen Gichoi, PhD, President, African Wildlife Foundation (in Nairobi, Kenya) and Peter Veit, Institutions and Governance, World Resources Institute (in Washington, DC). The work presented in the meeting represents the first of several years work by ABCG members African Wildlife Foundation, The Nature Conservancy and World Resources Institute (with the Jane Goodall Institute joining them in FY2011) on the intersections of governance, rights and land management for conservation.

Click here to download the minutes of the meeting

Presentations included:

Government Restrictions on the Use of Private Land in Tanzania and Kenya (click for presentation)
Peter Veit, Institutions and Governance, World Resources Institute

Expanding Options for Habitat Conservation Outside Protected Areas: The Use of Environmental Easements, Leases, Payments for Ecosystem Services and Other Conservation Tools in Kenya (click for presentation)
Kathleen Fitzgerald, Director, Land Conservation, African Wildlife Foundation

The Impact of the Recent Constitution and Land Policy Reforms on Community Conservation Initiatives in Kenya (click for presentation)
Collins Odote, University of Nairobi, Nairobi

Peter Veit of WRI, Johnny Wilson of TNC and Emmanuel Sulle of University of Maryland talk after the meeting